Water Softener Equipments
Out of these, the presence of magnesium and calcium bicarbonates, can cause (depending on its concentration and the destination of the water) some serious inconveniences.
In the water the calcium and magnesium bicarbonates are in balance with calcium and magnesium carbonates and carbon dioxide. The temperature rise of the water provoces the liberation of some parts of the carbon dioxide (which, being a gas, is less soluble as the temperature rises), which results in the loss of the above-mentioned balance. To restabilize it, a chemical production of carbon dioxide takes place, transforming, at the same time, the calcium and magnesium bicarbonates in calcium and magnesium carbonates; substances that are less soluble and thus can form limescales.
Water softening is the process that eliminates calcium and magnesium from the water. These two elements, combined with the presence of bicarbonates,  are the main cause of limescale sediment in the inside of termic installations and home appliances (heating systems, dishwasher, washing machine etc.) Likewise it can cause serious problems in industrial processes.
The process of softening is realized by letting the water flow through layers of cation resins. The resins change the calcium and magnesium-ions (Ca++ and Mg++) of the raw water with the sodium-ion (Na+) of the resin. When the resins are "exhausted", they are full of calcium and magnesium (Ca++ and Mg++) and low on sodium-ion (Na+). This causes the necessity to regenerate the resins.
The water elevated from the water tables or from wells contains all kind of disolved substances.